Mavis Love December 15, 2020 Alphabet Worksheet
If you are interested in learning Arabic, there are many online correspondence courses that help you to learn Arabic or you can start taking home tuitions. No matter what you do, learning of Arabic alphabets is how you get started with. Arabic alphabets are very different when compared to English alphabets and may look like some erratically written script. The first alphabet in Arabic is Alef and the symbol for this letter somewhat looks like T in English language. It has a S like symbol over it which tells how to pronounce the alphabet. The S shape is known as hamzeh and is an accent mark. Sometimes the hamzeh appears beneath the alphabet that apprises you to pronounce it differently. The second letter of the Arabic alphabet is called baa. The symbol for the alphabet differs according to the positioning of the alphabet in the word. Baa is one of the joined letters in the Arabic language. Baa has two forms- a short form and a long form. The long form of the alphabet is used when the word ends with baa and the short form is used when the word starts with baa or it comes in between two letters.
Nowadays, alphabet is used all over the world. There are more than ¾ of the worlds languages use alphabet, and about 60% of the worlds population speaks languages that have a written alphabet. Its important to write and read in order for the human society to communicate and learn about history. Until the invention of writing, the only way humans had to communicate was face to face. This prevented information from being able to be shared with any sort of wide spread. Based on alphabet, people developed the writing system which could help to preserve human knowledge in a thing called "book". Thanks to book, people could read and know more about the world and shape up the education system like today. Therefore, book is one of the greatest worth treasure in the world. Alphabet also plays an important part to traders and merchants in keeping records of their business.
Without rigorous proof, this conclusion is taken for granted by man due to its intuitiveness and accord to most facts and history of alphabets. Let me now ask some basic questions. Why alphabets better represent sounds than pictographs do? How to determine if a script is good at representing sounds? Are some alphabets better in representing sounds than other alphabets are? Should evolution be attributed to the spoken form, written form or the representing itself? These simple questions are not easy to answer. Why not attribute the evolution of writing to the visual form, then? That can certainly have more clarity and become simple as writing itself is visual creature. Why people still stick to the represent speech notion then? Following are some possible reasons. Speech and writing both changed a lot over time. They associated with each other tighter and tighter and are considered same thing - language. Speech is considered primary in language, which is by far meant spoken language. Speech is associated with human nature, while writing is considered an artifact. There are two points. One is they associate with each other. The other is speech is primary. The latter is itself a profound, although taken for granted. Here we take neutral position and wont try to approve nor reject it. As we have said, speech and writing has independent origins. The link between them is not preexisting. They are set up after longtime use. The resultant connection between writing and speech shouldnt be taken as the cause for the writing to evolve. Rather, the characteristics of writing should be analyzed to explain how it evolves visually. Then, the speech-writing associations influence on writings evolution should be addressed.
The writing represents speech notion Speech and writing originated independently of each other. Human speech probably appeared long time before writing. Earliest writings developed from drawings. They were of visual origin, as pictographs, ideograms. As time went by, writings were spatially arranged sequentially in lines, corresponding to the sequential property of speech in time domain. As writing systems evolved in the alphabetic direction, writings and speech associated with each other tighter and tighter, continuing to present day. The alphabets lost pictographic property. As alphabetic systems have replaced their pictographic  predecessors and gained prevalence, it seems natural to conclude that the evolution of writing systems is to better represent language sounds. This conclusion is elegant, intuitive, reasonable and basing on facts and researches. It certainly cannot explain some cases, for instance, the Chinese didnt evolve into alphabet. However, the Chinese characters are blamed to be too complex to represent speech. The modern Chinese writing is more tightly associated with spoken Chinese than ancient Chinese writing does. Moreover, characters have been simplified in mainland China. Chinese writing looks like taking a small step towards representing speech. Little doubts have been casted on this conclusion, although many scholars consider writing as more than simply representing speech. Representing speech seems a destined direction. Lets be a little skeptical on this natural conclusion.
In the initial stages you are only required to start with learning and mugging up the shapes and sounds of the alphabet. You may not worry about writing the alphabet till you have mastered the shapes and sounds of all the alphabets and some typical words that are often used in the language. As in English language Arabic also has a song that can be used to learn the alphabets easily. Even though this seems to be a childish method of learning the language, you have to start in a way akin to children when they first learn their mother tongue. There are no vowels in Arabic language but analogous to English vowels there are alphabets in Arabic that serves similar purpose and helps in determining the pronunciation of different words in Arabic. Mentioned earlier, the symbols that are placed above and below the character act as the vowel and determine how the word or the alphabet is suppose to sound. Kasr-aa is one of these symbols that is notated as slanted lines beneath some letters. Fat-haa is another such symbol that is placed above a letter. When these symbols are encountered a sound is added to the letter.
Visual evolution of writing Evolution of writing is reflected in its visual characteristics. We can easily see the salient visual distinction between alphabets and pictographs. Alphabet is a standardized set of letters. They usually comprise tens of letters, and are derived from complex pictographic scripts. Pictographs are complex and huge in amount. It is understandable to think that they have not evolved visually. If evolved visually, why becoming simpler instead of more complex? If writing is taken as visual art, it should evolve towards greater complexity. However, writing is a means of communication, representing and recording knowledge. The clarity, convenience, efficiency and suitability for reading thus become main concern. At the beginning, drawings were to depict something directly, as pictures. They were arranged usually in lines to represent meaning continuously. Apparently, the complex pictographs are not easy to recognize, lowering reading accuracy. It affects the reading fluency since more time is spent fixating at one pictograph before moving to the next. Complex symbols are discarded or simplified to facilitate linear reading. Some symbols had simpler and clearer visual pattern and were more frequently used. Long time passed, only a set of symbols are left and standardized. We call them alphabets. The reduction in number, simplification and standardization facilitate visual manipulation and memorization, leading the alphabets to supersede pictographs. Alphabetic writing is more suitable for reading than pictographic systems. We use the word legibility to denote the concept fit for reading, which we think is the central in evolution.